Cheney Defiant on Classified Material
Executive Order Ignored Since 2003
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, June 22, 2007; A01
Vice President Cheney’s office has refused to comply with an executive order
governing the handling of classified information for the past four years and
recently tried to abolish the office that sought to enforce those rules, according
to documents released by a congressional committee yesterday.
Since 2003, the vice president’s staff has not cooperated with an office at
the National Archives and Records Administration charged with making sure the
executive branch protects classified information. Cheney aides have not filed
reports on their possession of classified data and at one point blocked an inspection
of their office. After the Archives office pressed the matter, the documents
say, Cheney’s staff this year proposed eliminating it.
The dispute centers on a relatively obscure process but underscores a wider
struggle waged in the past 6 1/2 years over Cheney’s penchant for secrecy. Since
becoming vice president, he has fought attempts to peer into the inner workings
of his office, shielding an array of information such as the industry executives
who advised his energy task force, details about his privately funded travel
and Secret Service logs showing who visits his official residence.
The aggressive efforts to protect the operations of his staff have usually
pitted Cheney against lawmakers, interest groups or media organizations, sometimes
going all the way to the Supreme Court. But the fight about classified information
regulation indicates that the vice president has resisted oversight even by
other parts of the Bush administration.…
IN THIS ISSUE:
1. Jersey Girls Deliver Petitions to Congress; Request our Immediate Action
2. US Social Forum Accepts 911truth.org Proposal; We Need Your Help!
3. Explosion of Interest At Grassroots
5. Whitman to Testify Before House Subcommittee
6. Santa Cruz Media Summit Postponed
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
1. An email we received from the ‘Jersey Girls’, widows of 9/11 victims,
has been posted
in full at 911truth.org
Public’s Right to Know – Declassification and Release of Documents petition
surpassed 15,000 signatures. As promised, we have hand delivered it to lawmakers
in Washington, DC.
UPDATE: Recently, during our meetings with lawmakers, we discussed the declassification
and release of all transcripts and documents relating to the July 10, 2001 meeting
that took place between former CIA Director George Tenet and then National Security
Advisor, Condoleezza Rice, the redacted 28 pages of the Joint Inquiry Into The
Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 (JICI) and the CIA Inspector General “CIA Accountability With Respect To The 9/11 Attacks”, as mentioned in the Petition. (cont. at site)
ACTION ALERT: Please call and/or fax the following people. Tell them it is of the utmost importance to the future safety of the American public that the CIA Inspector General’s Report on September 11th be released immediately! (full list of addressees is at the site)
2. Whitman Will Testify To House Subcommittee
US Representative Jerrold Nadler of NY… Continue reading
September 11th Advocates Regarding Declassification and Release of Documents
The Public’s Right to Know – Declassification and Release of Documents petition ( http://www.petitiononline.com/july10/petition.html ) surpassed 15,000 signatures. As promised, we have hand delivered it to lawmakers in Washington, DC.
Recently, during our meetings with lawmakers, we discussed the declassification and release of all transcripts and documents relating to the July 10, 2001 meeting that took place between former CIA Director George Tenet and then National Security Advisor, Condoleezza Rice, the redacted 28 pages of the Joint Inquiry Into The Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 (JICI) and the CIA Inspector General’s report, “CIA Accountability With Respect To The 9/11 Attacks”, as mentioned in the Petition.
Almost six years have passed since September 11, 2001, yet critical information continues to be withheld from the American public regarding the attacks. Included in this statement is an “Action Alert” and background information explaining the importance of transparency in our government. Since there is currently active legislation (Wyden-Bond Amendment attached to bill #S.4) regarding the CIA Inspector General’s Report, we decided, for the moment, to focus our attention on this particular document. After reviewing the evidence produced by the Joint Inquiry of Congress into the 9/11 Attacks, both Republican and Democratic Congressmen agreed that a CIA Inspector General review into individual responsibility was necessary. Faced with the facts, these Congressmen understood that accountability in the Intelligence Community was crucial. Their intent was that a final declassified CIA/IG report was to be released to… Continue reading
June 12, 2007
Judges Say U.S. Can’t Hold Man as ‘Combatant’
By ADAM LIPTAK
Background: Ali al-Marri, a citizen from Qatar, was arrested on Dec. 12, 2001 in Peoria, Ill., where he was living with his wife and five children while studying computer science at Bradley University. He was initially charged with credit card fraud and lying to federal agents. Then in 2003, he was transfered to military custody and designated an enemy combatant. Government officials contended that he was an al-Qaeda sleeper agent, sent to the United States to commit mass murder and disrupt the banking system. Mr. al-Marri denied the charges and challenged his detention. His case took on added significance when Mr. al-Marri was left as the only enemy combatant being held in mainland America.
The federal appeals court in Richmond, Va., ruled yesterday that the president may not declare civilians in this country to be “enemy combatants” and have the military hold them indefinitely. The ruling was a stinging rejection of one of the Bush administration’s central assertions about the scope of executive authority to combat terrorism.
The ruling came in the case of Ali al-Marri, a citizen of Qatar now in military custody in Charleston, S.C., who is the only person on the American mainland known to be held as an enemy combatant. The court said the administration may charge Mr. Marri with a crime, deport him or hold him as a material witness in connection with a grand jury investigation.
“But military detention of al-Marri must cease,” Judge Diana Gribbon Motz wrote for the majority of a divided three-judge panel.…Continue reading
June 10, 2007
Northern California 9/11 Truth Alliance, http://www.communitycurrency.org/impeach.html
Carol Brouillet- (home) 650-857-0927, firstname.lastname@example.org
Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth, http://www.ae911truth.org
Richard Gage- (cell) 925-285-1839, email@example.com
Patriots Tour 2007, http://www.thepatriots.us
Robert Bowman- (cell) 321-752-5955, DrBob@Bowman2008.com
The Need to Remember, http://www.theneedtoremember.com/
Janette MacKinlay- 510-339-9358, firstname.lastname@example.org
National Days of Truth Action, http://www.truthaction.org/
Cosmos- 415 552 5776, email@example.com
Heroes for 9/11 Truth, for Peace, for Impeachment
Wednesday, June 13, 2007, at 1 pm at Lytton Plaza in downtown Palo Alto, heroes
will rally to support Representative Dennis Kucinich’s articles of impeachment
against Vice President Cheney, H.R. 333. The master of ceremonies, award-winning
investigative journalist and host of KPFA’s Flashpoints, Dennis Bernstein–together
with Superman, Wonder Woman, Spider-Man and Yoda–will pass out awards honoring
“Heroic Citizens for 9/11 Truth” to Dr. Robert Bowman, Richard Gage,
Janette MacKinlay, Cosmos, Jim Hoffman, and Aaron Dames. Superman (musician-
August Bullock) will sing “Heroes of America,” which inspired the
theme of this and last month’s impeachment rallies. After the award presentations,
heroic citizens will march at 2 pm through downtown Palo Alto to Congresswoman
Anna Eshoo’s office at 698 Emerson Street.
9/11 has been used to sell wars, pass the PATRIOT Act, construct the Homeland
Security apparatus, to institutionalize torture and to weaken the Constitution
and the Bill of Rights. Heroic citizens have exposed lies and omissions in the
Commission Report, demanded the release of suppressed evidence and called for
a genuine investigation. From a one-woman “Listening Project” in
downtown Palo Alto (Wednesdays 11 am… Continue reading
WARD BOSTON, JR., THE SAN DIEGO UNION-TRIBUNE, JUN 8, 2007
This article was originally published by The San Diego Union-Tribune and is republished with the author’s permission.
Forty years ago this week, I was asked to investigate the heaviest attack on an American ship since World War II. As senior legal counsel to the Navy Court of Inquiry it was my job to help uncover the truth regarding Israel’s June 8th 1967 bombing of the USS Liberty.
On that sunny, clear day 40 years ago, Israel’s combined air and naval forces attacked our American intelligence-gathering ship for two hours, inflicting 70 percent casualties. Thirty-four American sailors died and 172 were injured. The USS Liberty remained afloat only by the crew’s heroic efforts.
Israel claimed it was an accident. Yet I know from personal conversations with the late Admiral Isaac C. Kidd — president of the Court of Inquiry — that President Johnson and Secretary of Defense McNamara ordered him to conclude that the attack was a case of “mistaken identity.”
The ensuing cover-up has haunted us for forty years. What does it imply for our national security, not to mention our ability to honestly broker peace in the Middle East, when we cannot question Israel’s actions — even when they kill Americans?
On June 8th, survivors of Israel’s cruel attack will gather in Washington, DC to honor their dead shipmates as well as the mothers, sisters, widows and children they left behind. They will continue to ask for a fair and impartial congressional inquiry that, for the first time, would allow the survivors themselves to testify publicly.…Continue reading
by Carol Brouillet
The morning of September 11, 2001, Paul Cross was at the White House for part of the post-production work of his film “Follow the Leader,” a documentary about the everyday life of the President of the United States. On September 12th Paul visited the Pentagon. He did not see that the damage to the building nor the debris nor the scene were consistent with the official claim that a Boeing 757 had crashed there. He finished producing “Follow the Leader,” which won an award at the Atlantic City Film Festival for best documentary, and traveled with the film, speaking about it.
Paul has a deep reverence and love for this country and the ideals it proclaims. When the truth of 9/11 hit him, he cried for days. “Severe Visibility,” his latest film, is his response. It tells the story of Major Stanley Kruter (played by Paul Cross) who represents the average American and was injured in the Pentagon attack. The other major character is a foreign journalist who begs Kruter to tell him about what he witnessed from his window during the attack. Paul said he identified with the journalist, who doubts that a commercial 757 airliner actually hit the Pentagon.
I heard about Paul’s film from a mutual banjo-playing friend last July, in 2006. Thrilled that a Hollywood feature 9/11 Truth film was being made, I phoned Paul. We had a friendly conversation. I sent him a copy of my DVD, but though he promised to… Continue reading
Ashland Daily Tidings Opinion/Editorial
May 21, 2007
Nearly six years after the attacks of Sept. 11, the issue remains undiminished,
lumbering around as American leaders still pretend it does not exist.
But the doors of truth, once guarded by ridicule, have slowly parted to reveal
reasonable, rational lingering questions that cannot be dismissed by scoffing.
Local area activists have joined a nationwide movement that has propelled the
memory of 9/11 into political arenas that once regarded the topic taboo. On
Thursday, Southern Oregon University will host David Ray Griffin, a highly regarded
theologian and the author of three books questioning the Bush administration’s
explanation of 9/11.
This local interest, as part of a compelling new level of national interest,
shows the issue is pushing its way into mainstream interest.
A Zogby International poll — an agency frequently sourced by media outlets — said half of all New Yorkers believe the U.S. allowed the attacks. Nearly two-thirds believe an unfettered investigation is warranted.
Also entering into the fight for truth is our own Sen. Ron Wyden, D-Oregon, whose legislative call for the Central Intelligence Agency to open its investigative reports on 9/11 (reported May 17 by The Associated Press) has raised the ire of his colleagues. Joining together with Jay Rockefeller, D-W. Va, and Kit Bond, D-Mo., Wyden’s legislation would require the CIA to declassify its executive summary in one month and submit a report explaining why any material was withheld.
Although initially dismissed as crackpot theory, the truth-seeker’s movement has continually gained momentum since the dust cloud from the fallen twin towers seemingly covered the investigative instincts of our national media, which in turn, ignored a third building collapsing in exactly the same manner.…Continue reading
Thursday May 17, 2007 10:16 PM
By KATHERINE SHRADER
Associated Press Writer
WASHINGTON (AP) – A bipartisan group of senators is pushing legislation that
would force the CIA to release an inspector general’s report on the terrorist
attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.
The CIA has spent more than 20 months weighing requests under the Freedom of
Information Act for its internal investigation of the attacks but has yet to
release any portion of it.
The agency is the only federal office involved in counterterrorism operations
that has not made at least a version of its internal 9/11 investigation public.
Sen. Ron Wyden, D-Ore., and two other intelligence committee leaders – chairman
Jay Rockefeller, D-W.Va., and senior Republican Kit Bond of Missouri – are pushing
legislation that would require the agency to declassify the executive summary
of the review within one month and submit a report to Congress explaining why
any material was withheld.
The provision has been approved by the Senate twice, but never made into law.
In an interview, Wyden said he is also considering whether to link the report’s
release to his acceptance of President Bush’s nominations for national security
“It’s amazing the efforts the administration is going to stonewall this,”
Wyden said. “The American people have a right to know what the Central Intelligence
Agency was doing in those critical months before 9/11…. I am going to bulldog
this until the public gets it.”
Completed in June 2005, the inspector general’s report examined the personal
responsibility… Continue reading
by Robert Parry
In late August 2001, when aggressive presidential action might have changed the course of U.S. history, CIA Director George Tenet made a special trip to Crawford, Texas, to get George W. Bush to focus on an imminent threat of a spectacular al-Qaeda attack only to have the conversation descend into meaningless small talk.
Alarmed CIA officials already had held an extraordinary meeting with then-national security adviser Condoleezza Rice on July 10 to lay out the accumulating evidence of an impending attack and had delivered on Aug. 6 a special “Presidential Daily Brief” to Bush entitled “Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US.”
“A few weeks after the Aug. 6 PDB was delivered, I followed it to Crawford to make sure the President stayed current on events,” Tenet wrote in his memoir, At the Center of the Storm. “This was my first visit to the ranch. I remember the President graciously driving me around the spread in his pickup and my trying to make small talk about the flora and the fauna, none of which were native to Queens,” where Tenet had grown up.
Tenet’s trip to Crawford — like the July 10 meeting with Rice and the Aug. 6 briefing paper for Bush — failed to shock the administration out of its lethargy nor elicit the emergency steps that the CIA and other counterterrorism specialists wanted.
While Tenet and Bush made small talk about “the flora and the fauna,” al-Qaeda operatives put the finishing touches on their plans.…Continue reading
By Alphonzo Lyons
Saturday, April 21, 2007
Three books that I have read recently have caused me to question, and have
some serious concerns about, the integrity of segments of Christianity and elements
of this great government of ours as they both interface with African-American
people in particular, and thus all people.
As G.K. Chesterton said, “We’re all in this boat together, and we all
get seasick together.”
“Dark Alliance,” written by Gary Webb, details the crack cocaine
epidemic in the United States in the 1980s and its rapid and insidious spread
through urban communities throughout America.
The author ties the wildfire diffusion of crack to the Reagan administration’s
efforts to stop the spread of communism in Central America by siding with the
anti-communist Contras against the pro-communist Sandinistas. Since the U.S.
Congress had cut off financial assistance for the Contras, income from crack
and other illicit drugs reportedly were endorsed by the Central Intelligence
Agency operatives as a means of financing anti-communist efforts.
The irony is that President Reagan announced the War on Drugs program and appointed
the first “drug czar,” Bill Bennett.
The religious implication: the destruction of the black family, the increased
imprisonment of men of color, the birth of an inordinate number of crack babies,
increased levels of despair in America and the world, and the accelerated demonization
of human lives.
The second book, “Tempting Faith,” was written by David Kuo, a Christian
who began as a Washington speech writer. Kuo ascended to be second… Continue reading
04/30/07 “ICH” — — “If you can’t say something positive about someone, don’t say anything.” This was drummed into me by my Irish grandmother and, as was the case with most of her admonishments, it has stood me in good stead. On occasion, though, it has been a real bother–as when I felt called to comment on George Tenet’s apologia, In the Center of the Storm, coming soon to a bookstore near you.
On the verge of despair, I ran into an old classmate of Tenet’s from PS 94 in Little Neck, Queens. Help at last. He told me that George was more handsome than his twin brother Billy, and that his outgoing nature and consummate political skill got him elected president of the student body.
Positive enough, Grandma? Now let me add this.
George Tenet’s book shows that he remains, first and foremost, a politician–with no clue as to the proper role of intelligence work. He is unhappy about going down in history as “Slam Dunk Tenet.” George protests that his famous remark to President Bush on Dec. 21, 2002 was not meant to assure the president that available intelligence on weapons of mass destruction in Iraq was a “slam dunk.” Rather he meant that the argument that Saddam Hussein had such weapons could be readily enhanced to slam-dunk status in order to sell war on Iraq. Yesterday evening on CBS’ 60 Minutes Tenet explained what he meant when he uttered those words–the words he says have now been distorted to blame him for the war in Iraq.…Continue reading
By Naomi Wolf, Chelsea Green Publishing
April 28, 2007
Alternet Editor’s note: This is adapted from Wolf’s forthcoming book “The
End of America: A Letter of Warning to a Young Patriot.”
autumn, there was a military coup in Thailand. The leaders of the coup took
a number of steps, rather systematically, as if they had a shopping list. In
a sense, they did. Within a matter of days, democracy had been closed down —
the coup leaders declared martial law, sent armed soldiers into residential
areas, took over radio and TV stations, issued restrictions on the press, tightened
some limits on travel and took certain activists into custody.
They were not figuring these things out as they went along. If you look at
history, you can see that there is essentially a blueprint for turning an open
society into a dictatorship. That blueprint has been used again and again in
more and less bloody, more and less terrifying ways. But it is always effective.
It is very difficult and arduous to create and sustain a democracy, but history
shows that closing one down is much simpler. You simply have to be willing to
take the 10 steps.
As difficult as this is to contemplate, it is clear, if you are willing to
look, that each of these 10 steps has already been initiated in the United States
by the Bush administration.
Because Americans like me were born in freedom, we have a hard time even considering
that… Continue reading
Working for the Clampdown: What might the president do with his new power to declare martial law?
By James Bovard
04/25/07 “American Conservative” — – How many pipe bombs might it take to end American democracy? Far fewer than it would have taken a year ago.
The Defense Authorization Act of 2006 [Ed.: Details at http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-1815], passed on Sept. 30, empowers President George W. Bush to impose martial law in the event of a terrorist “incident,” if he or other federal officials perceive a shortfall of “public order,” or even in response to antiwar protests that get unruly as a result of government provocations.
The media and most of Capitol Hill ignored or cheered on this grant of nearly boundless power. But now that the president’s arsenal of authority is swollen and consecrated, a few voices of complaint are being heard. Even the New York Times recently condemned the new law for “making martial law easier.”
It only took a few paragraphs in a $500 billion, 591-page bill to raze one of the most important limits on federal power. Congress passed the Insurrection Act in 1807 to severely restrict the president’s ability to deploy the military within the United States. The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878 tightened these restrictions, imposing a two-year prison sentence on anyone who used the military within the U.S. without the express permission of Congress. But there is a loophole: Posse Comitatus is waived if the president invokes the Insurrection Act.
Section 1076 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 [Ed.: Details at www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-5122″] changed the name of the key provision in the statute book from “Insurrection Act” to “Enforcement of the Laws to Restore Public Order Act.” The Insurrection Act of 1807 stated that the president could deploy troops within the United States only “to suppress, in a State, any insurrection, domestic violence, unlawful combination, or conspiracy.” The new law expands the list to include “natural disaster, epidemic, or other serious public health emergency, terrorist attack or incident, or other condition”–and such “condition” is not defined or limited.…Continue reading
While the morning rain and the threat of afternoon rain prevented “Annie and the Vets” from providing music at the 4/11/2007 Impeach Bush/Cheney rally, a substantial crowd gathered in the last-minute sunshine on Lytton Plaza in downtown Palo Alto, amidst a giant replica of the flawed 9/11 Commission Report, two smoking towers labeled Constitution and Bill of Rights, many colorful banners calling for impeachment, and a huge “Deception Dollar” banner.
The first marches demanding a Congressional Investigation into 9/11 were held in Palo Alto in January 2002, followed by further marches in January of 2003 demanding “Pre-Emptive Impeachment.” Marches for impeachment are now a monthly occurrence and converged yesterday with a monthly 9/11 Truth action. The rally began with a bit of history and Congresswoman Eshoo’s response to the previous rally on March 14th. Eshoo wrote:
“I’ve lived through an impeachment process and witnessed firsthand how it tears the country apart. The election in November was a resounding rejection of the President’s policies and the policies of his party. I think it’s time to bring the country together and move forward. In my view, impeachment will heavily distract from the important work of reversing the disastrous course this Administration has set and will virtually bring to a halt progress on important issues including healthcare and global warming.”
The primary organizer of the rally, Carol Brouillet, read her response to Eshoo:
There is a tremendous difference between the charges leveled against Bill Clinton and those that are being directed towards Bush… Continue reading
Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can’t Stand Up to the Facts
by The Editors of Popular Mechanics (Author), John McCain (Foreword), David Dunbar (Editor), Brad Reagan (Editor)
Publisher: Hearst (August 15, 2006)
Maybe the life of the nation is at stake, and maybe it isn’t. Maybe this is a time of unprecedented tyranny, and maybe it is simply what was just out of view on the same road we have been traveling for the last seventy years. Maybe this was a sea change and a quantum leap, or maybe it was neither. Regardless of the proper description of the event and this time in history, 9/11 has become an opportunity for enormous hope, great change, and an entirely new perspective.
Whether one is inclined to indulge, or even consider, the theoretical justifications for the massacre of 9/11 (the need to awaken a sleeping nation to the requirements of global hegemony), or not, the nature of the act and its perpetrators are matters of importance from every conceivable standpoint. The progress of the debate about that nature and those perpetrators has been enhanced by Debunking 9/11 Myths, edited by David Dunbar and Brad Reagan of Popular Mechanics magazine. Maybe not in ways the writers had hoped.
To the world at large, to the hungry masses yearning for points to be refuted or sustained, answers given, questions acknowledged if not answered, the appearance of a book by the mainstream which purports to establish, as the subtitle declares, “… Continue reading
By Larry McShane
NEW YORK (AP) — Rudy Giuliani’s White House aspirations are inescapably tied
to September 11, 2001 — for better and for worse.
While the former mayor of the nation’s largest city was widely lionized for
his post-9/11 leadership — “Churchillian” was one adjective, “America’s
mayor” was Oprah Winfrey’s assessment — city firefighters and their families
are renewing their attacks on him for his performance before and after the terrorist
“If Rudolph Giuliani was running on anything but 9/11, I would not speak
out,” said Sally Regenhard, whose firefighter son was among the 343 FDNY
members killed in the terrorist attack. “If he ran on cleaning up Times
Square, getting rid of squeegee men, lowering crime — that’s indisputable.
“But when he runs on 9/11, I want the American people to know he was part
of the problem.”
Such comments contradict Giuliani’s post-September 11 profile as a hero and
symbol of the city’s resilience — the steadfast leader who calmed the nerves
of a rattled nation. But as the presidential campaign intensifies, criticisms
of his 2001 performance are resurfacing.
Giuliani, the leader in polls of Republican voters for his party’s nomination,
has been faulted on two major issues:
- His administration’s failure to provide the World Trade Center’s first responders with adequate radios, a long-standing complaint from relatives of the firefighters killed when the twin towers collapsed. The September 11 commission noted the firefighters at the World Trade Center were using the same ineffective radios employed by the first responders to the 1993 terrorist attack on the trade center.…Continue reading
Giuliani Faces Questions About Sept. 11
By American Press
Posted March 30, 2007
New York – Rudy Giuliani’s White House aspirations are inescapably tied to Sept. 11, 2001 – for better and for worse. While the former mayor of the nation’s largest city was widely lionized for his post-9/11 leadership – “Churchillian” was one adjective, “America’s mayor” was Oprah Winfrey’s assessment – city firefighters and their families are renewing their attacks on him for his performance before and after the terrorist attack.
“If Rudolph Giuliani was running on anything but 9/11, I would not speak out,” said Sally Regenhard, whose firefighter son was among the 343 FDNY members killed in the terrorist attack. “If he ran on cleaning up Times Square, getting rid of squeegee men, lowering crime – that’s indisputable.
“But when he runs on 9/11, I want the American people to know he was part of the problem.”
Such comments contradict Giuliani’s post-Sept. 11 profile as a hero and symbol of the city’s resilience – the steadfast leader who calmed the nerves of a rattled nation. But as the presidential campaign intensifies, criticisms of his 2001 performance are resurfacing.
Giuliani, the leader in polls of Republican voters for his party’s nomination, has been faulted on two major issues:
- His administration’s failure to provide the World Trade Center’s first responders with adequate radios, a long-standing complaint from relatives of the firefighters killed when the twin towers collapsed. The Sept. 11 Commission noted the firefighters at the World Trade Center were using the same ineffective radios employed by the first responders to the 1993 terrorist attack on the trade center.…Continue reading